Kingship and political practice in colonial India, by Pamela G. Price, p.61: "...when government census officers placed Vellalar in the Sat-Sudra or Good Sudra category in its 1901 census, Vellalar castemen petitioned this designation, protesting this designation.. https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/vellala, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vellalar&oldid=1001718299, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 21 January 2021, at 00:28. [187] The most important contributor to the strength of the militant groups was the Black July massacre, in which between 1,000 and 3,000[189][190] Tamils were killed, prompting many youths to choose the path of armed resistance. Some also function as paramilitary groups within the Sri Lankan military. [20][21] A United Nations panel found that as many as 40,000 Tamil civilians may have been killed in the final months of the civil war. Batticaloa Tamil dialect is the most literary of all the spoken dialects of Tamil. [58], In the 6th century CE, a special coastal route by boat was established from the Jaffna peninsula southwards to Saivite religious centres in Trincomalee (Koneswaram) and further south to Batticaloa (Thirukkovil), passed a few small Tamil trading settlements in Mullaitivu on the north coast. [18], Their dominance rose under Dutch rule and they formed one of the colonial political elites of the island. Prominent Sri Lankan Tamils in the Forbes list of billionaire include: Ananda Krishnan,[206] Raj Rajaratnam, and G. Gnanalingam,[207] and Singapore's former foreign minister and deputy prime minister, S. Rajaratnam, are of Sri Lankan Tamil descent. But, a man can only marry in one of his sampantha kudis not in the sakothara kudis. [113] Northern Tamil society is generally categorised into two groups: those who are from the Jaffna peninsula in the north, and those who are residents of the Vanni to the immediate south. Despite the total silence of Colombo NGO peace mudalalis with western Ph.Ds, and the Marga Institute not producing papers” on the impact of the Tamil Nad separatist agenda on Sri Lanka, from 1917 to 2007, there had been a continuous … "[12], In Verse 31: [168], The arrival of Protestant missionaries on a large scale beginning in 1814 was a primary contributor to the development of political awareness among Sri Lankan Tamils. Meat dishes such as mutton, chicken and pork also have their own niche. However, such restrictions no longer apply. [28] Other theories contends that Tamil people were one of the original inhabitants of the island. These dialects are differentiated by the phonological changes and sound shifts in their evolution from classical or old Tamil (3rd century BCE–7th century CE). So many young Tamil lives lost because of this megalomaniac. The FP was blamed and briefly banned after the riots of May–June 1958 targeting Tamils, in which many were killed and thousands forced to flee their homes. [56][57] The Vanni region flourished. This led to the emergence of three new Sinhalese caste groups: the Salagama, the Durava and the Karava. [199] The Sri Lankan government has released over 11,000 rehabilitated former LTTE cadres. [159] Another popular breakfast or dinner dish is Appam, a thin crusty pancake made with rice flour, with a round soft crust in the middle. Vira Alakeshwara, a descendant of Alagakkonara, later became king of the Sinhalese,[77] but he was overthrown by the Ming admiral Zheng He in 1409 CE. Tamil loan words in Sinhala also follow the characteristics of Sri Lankan Tamil dialects. [34], According to K. Indrapala, cultural diffusion, rather than migration of people, spread the Prakrit and Tamil languages from peninsular India into an existing mesolithic population, centuries before the common era. [64], In the 9th and 10th centuries CE, Pandya and Chola incursions into Sri Lanka culminated in the Chola annexation of the island, which lasted until the latter half of the 11th century CE. de Silva Introduction – As one who is celebrating his 92nd Christmas, it is with a profound sense of nostalgia that I pen these thoughts. Historically, the Sri Lankan Vellalar were in northern region dominant and were traditionally husbandman involved in agriculture and cattle cultivation. Under the terms of an agreement reached between the Sri Lankan and Indian governments in the 1960s, about forty percent of the Indian Tamils were granted Sri Lankan citizenship, and most of the remainder were repatriated to India. [121][122][123] Most Negombo Tamils have assimilated into the Sinhalese ethnic group through a process known as Sinhalisation. [137] Kataragama temple and Adam's Peak are attended by all religious communities. Coconut milk and hot chilli powder are also frequently used. The archaeological discoveries in these towns and the Manimekhalai, a historical poem, detail how Nāka-Tivu of Nāka-Nadu on the Jaffna Peninsula was a lucrative international market for pearl and conch trading for the Tamil fishermen. [157], Jaffna, as a peninsula, has an abundance of seafood such as crab, shark, fish, prawn, and squid. He received 23 crore votes from the people. [107] From that time on, Eastern Tamil social development diverged from that of the Northern Tamils. [d], The caste structure of the majority Sinhalese has also accommodated Hindu immigrants from South India since the 13th century CE. [136] Hindus have several temples with historic importance such as those at Ketheeswaram, Koneswaram, Naguleswaram, Munneswaram, Tondeswaram, and Nallur Kandaswamy. The civil war ended in 2009 but there are continuing allegations of atrocities being committed by the Sri Lankan Military. [195], In August 2009, the civil war ended with total victory for the government forces. [187] These policies made it difficult for middle class Tamil youth to enter university or secure employment. During the Portuguese and Dutch colonial periods (1619–1796), Muttukumara Kavirajar is the earliest known author who used literature to respond to Christian missionary activities. The long physical isolation of the Tamils of Jaffna has enabled their dialect to preserve ancient features of old Tamil that predate Tolkappiyam,[138] the grammatical treatise on Tamil dated from 3rd century BCE to 10th century CE. Since Sri Lanka gained independence from Britain in 1948, relations between the majority Sinhalese and minority Tamil communities have been strained. Temples of this type are common in the Northern and Eastern Provinces; a typical village has up to 150 such structures. They were found to be the most distant group from the Veddahs, and quite distant from both North-West Indians (Punjabs and Gujratis) and North-East Indians (Bengalis). A popular alcoholic drink in rural areas is palm wine (toddy), made from palmyra tree sap. Except for the LTTE, many of the remaining organisations transformed into either minor political parties within the Tamil National Alliance or standalone political parties. Iḷa bharatahi Dameda Samane karite Dameda gahapathikana. [113] The castes of temple priests known as the Kurukkals and the Iyers are also held in high esteem. [209], After the start of the conflict between the Sri Lankan government and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, there was a mass migration of Tamils trying to escape the hardships and perils of war. Displayed at the. However, the word has no clear meaning in Tamil (while "Ponna", etc., could mean gold), although it has a clear meaning in Sanskrit/Prakrit. A Kurukkal may belong to someone from a prominent local lineage like Pandaram or Iyer community. Modern Sri Lankan Tamils descend from residents of the Jaffna Kingdom, a former kingdom in the north of Sri Lanka and Vannimai chieftaincies from the east. [187][190][191], By the end of 1987, the militant youth groups had fought not only the Sri Lankan security forces and the Indian Peace Keeping Force also among each other, with the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) eventually eliminating most of the others. There is little scholarly consensus over the presence of the Sri Lankan Tamil people in Sri Lanka, also known as Eelam in Sangam literature. Rice and curry is the name for a range of Sri Lankan Tamil dishes distinct from Indian Tamil cuisine, with regional variations between the island's northern and eastern areas. The Jesuits opened churches and seminaries, but the Dutch destroyed them and opened their own schools attached to Dutch Reformed churches when they took over Tamil-speaking regions of Sri Lanka. [123] The Batticaloa Tamil dialect is shared between Tamils, Muslims, Veddhas and Portuguese Burghers in the Eastern Province. The offering would be done by an elder of the family who owns the site. [187], Human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, as well as the United States Department of State[192] and the European Union,[193] have expressed concern about the state of human rights in Sri Lanka, and both the government of Sri Lanka and the rebel LTTE have been accused of human rights violations. [147][148], Sri Lankan Tamil society values education highly, for its own sake as well as for the opportunities it provides. [81], The English sailor Robert Knox described walking into the island's Tamil country in the publication An Historical Relation of the Island Ceylon, referencing some aspects of their royal, rural and economic life and annotating some kingdoms within it on a map in 1681 CE. Outside the Tamil-dominated northeast, the Puttalam District has the highest percentage of place names of Tamil origin in Sri Lanka. [8] In western European countries, the refugees and immigrants have integrated themselves into society where permitted. Bala […] Watch all the latest episodes of Bigg Boss Tamil 4 on Star Vijay television and Hotstar. American activities in Jaffna also had unintended consequences. "The Vellalas of Karmandalam belonged to the Manava Gotra & practiced the rite of upanayana or wearing the sacred thread. According to the anthropological and archaeological evidence, Sri Lankan Tamils have a very long history in Sri Lanka and have lived on the island since at least around the 2nd century BCE. [31][32], The Indigenous Veddhas are ethnically related to people in South India and early populations of Southeast Asia. [51], Other ancient inscriptions from the period reference a Tamil merchant,[a] the Tamil householder residing in Iḷabharata[b] and a Tamil sailor named Karava. Ponnambalam and his All Ceylon Tamil Congress joined D.S. [1] Sri Lankan Tamils constitute an overwhelming majority of the population in the Northern Province and are the largest ethnic group in the Eastern Province. [182] [162][180] By 1977 most Tamils seemed to support the move for independence by electing the Tamil United Liberation Front overwhelmingly. They are classified into three subgroups: the Jaffna Tamil, the Batticaloa Tamil, and the Negombo Tamil dialects. Sinhalisation has been facilitated by caste myths and legends. The Hindu elite, especially the Vellalar, follow the religious ideology of Shaiva Siddhanta (Shaiva school) while the masses practice folk Hinduism, upholding their faith in local village deities not found in formal Hindu scriptures. Vanni consists of a number of highland settlements within forested lands using irrigation tank-based cultivation. While there was significant migration during the British colonial period, the civil war led to more than 800,000 Tamils leaving Sri Lanka, and many have left the country for destinations such as India, Australia, Europe and Canada as refugees. [97] Historically, both groups have seen themselves as separate communities, although there has been a greater sense of unity since the 1980s. The Indian Tamils (or Hill Country Tamils) are descendants of bonded labourers sent from Tamil Nadu to Sri Lanka in the 19th century to work on tea plantations. The modern period of Tamil literature began in the 1960s with the establishment of modern universities and a free education system in post-independence Sri Lanka. Aside from castes with an internal kudi system, there are seventeen caste groups, called Ciraikudis, or imprisoned kudis, whose members were considered to be in captivity, confined to specific services such as washing, weaving, and toddy tapping. [47], Once Prakrit speakers had attained dominance on the island, the Mahavamsa further recounts the later migration of royal brides and service castes from the Tamil Pandya Kingdom to the Anuradhapura Kingdom in the early historic period. [36], During the protohistoric period (1000-500 BCE) Sri Lanka was culturally united with southern India,[37] and shared the same megalithic burials, pottery, iron technology, farming techniques and megalithic graffiti. In Mahavamsa, a historical poem, ethnic Tamil adventurers such as Ellalan invaded the island around 145 BCE. MGs1 ¸ \( íF 0 00 000 0000 0001 0002 0003 0004 0005 0006 000j 000s 001 0017 002 003 0032 0036 004 005 006 007 008 0080 01 0106 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 ! The Sri Lankan Tamil dialects form a group that is distinct from the dialects of the modern Tamil Nadu and Kerala states of India. [86], According to the 2012 census there were 2,270,924 Sri Lankan Tamils in Sri Lanka, 11.2% of the population. [138] Conservational Jaffna Tamil dialect and Indian Tamil dialects are to an extent not mutually intelligible,[145] and the former is frequently mistaken for Malayalam by native Indian Tamil speakers. [160] It has variations such as egg or milk Appam. During the last phase of the war, many Tamil civilians and combatants were killed. Of course, the main thrust of Tamil extremism was to strike fear in the hearts of the Tamils to win votes. Both types of temples have a resident ritualist or priest known as a Kurukkal. More often, however, the temple is not completed in accordance with Agamic scriptures but consists of the barest essential structure housing a local deity. There also exists a significant population in Sri Lanka who are native speakers of Tamil language and are of Islamic faith. Although Amnesty International in 2003 found considerable improvement in the human rights situation, attributed to a ceasefire and peace talks between the government and the LTTE,[194] by 2007 they reported an escalation in political killings, child recruitment, abductions, and armed clashes, which created a climate of fear in the north and east of the country. [151], By the time Sri Lanka became independent in 1948, about sixty percent of government jobs were held by Tamils, who formed barely fifteen percent of the population. One-third of Sri Lankan Tamils now live outside Sri Lanka. Tamil is their mother tongue. It refers to the exogamous matrilineal clans and is found amongst most caste groups. Norochcholai coal-fired power plant probe: By Dr Janaka Ratnasiri The Chairman of the Committee on Public Enterprises (COPE) has said at a meeting of COPE, held on Tuesday, (24th) in Parliament, that the entire country is affected by the Norochcholai coal power plant (CPP). [177] S.J.V. Cultural similarities in burial practices in South India and Sri Lanka were dated by archaeologists to 10th century BCE. [19][20], Meluhha and Agastya : Alpha and Omega of the Indus Script By Iravatham Mahadevan pages 16: "The Ventar-Velir-Velalar groups constituted the ruling and land-owning classes in the Tamil country since the beginning of recorded history", Al-Hind: Early medieval India and the expansion of Islam, 7th-11th centuries By André Wink pages 321: "Not only were the Vellalas the landowning communities of South India,...". British Governor William Manning, who was appointed in 1918 however, actively encouraged the concept of "communal representation". The ensuing civil war resulted in the deaths of more than 100,000 people and the forced disappearance of thousands of others. [118][119], People in the Vanni districts considered themselves separate from Tamils of the Jaffna peninsula but the two groups did intermarry. [111] Most Eastern Tamils follow customary laws called Mukkuva laws codified during the Dutch colonial period. [146] The closest Tamil Nadu Tamil variant to Jaffna Tamil is literary Tamil, used in formal speeches and news reading. [152][153], According to legends, the origin of Sri Lankan Tamil literature dates back to the Sangam period (3rd century BCE–6th century CE). [172] This council's primary function was to act as advisor to the Governor, and the seats eventually became elected positions. [205] In the late 19th century, educated Tamils from the Jaffna peninsula migrated to the British colonies of Malaya (Malaysia and Singapore) and India to assist the colonial bureaucracy. The coastal areas of the island were conquered by the Dutch and then became part of the British Empire in 1796 CE. During Singai Pararasasekaran's rule, an academy for the propagation of the Tamil language, modelled on those of ancient Tamil Sangam, was established in Nallur. The next year, the Chinese admiral Zheng He erected a trilingual stone tablet in Galle in the south of the island, written in Chinese, Persian and Tamil that recorded offerings he made to Buddha, Allah and the God of Tamils Tenavarai Nayanar. The Tamils of the Trincomalee district have different social customs from their southern neighbours due to the influence of the Jaffna kingdom to the north. [27] Another theory states that the Sri Lankan Tamils are descendant of the Nagas, who started to assimilate to Tamil culture and language around 3rd century BCE. Lahugala was taken out of the Uva province and added to the Amparai district. Eastern Tamils are an agrarian-based society. Such writings have no parallels in any previous Tamil literature. Hindu Saivism, Tamil Buddhism and Jainism were popular amongst the Tamils at this time, as was the proliferation of village deity worship. 70% of Sri Lankan Tamils in Sri Lanka live in the Northern and Eastern provinces. Today, they constitute a majority in the Northern Province, live in significant numbers in the Eastern Province and are in the minority throughout the rest of the country. The admiral invoked the blessings of Hindu deities at Temple of Perimpanayagam Tenavaram, Tevanthurai for a peaceful world built on trade.[78]. No man can marry in the same kudi because woman is always become sister to him. Appetizers can consist of a range of achars (pickles) and vadahams. [9], The Vellalars who were land owners and tillers of the soil and held offices pertaining to land, were ranked as Sat-Sudra in the 1901 census; with the Government of Madras recognising that the 4-fold division did not describe the South Indian, or Dravidian, society adequately. [80] In this work, a number of villages that are now situated in the Jaffna, Mullaitivu and Trincomalee districts are mentioned as places in Demala-pattana. ", "Language Shift in the Tamil Communities of Malaysia and Singapore: the Paradox of Egalitarian Language Policy", "50 years of Sri Lankan Tamil literature", "UN 'failed Sri Lanka civilians', says internal probe", "Sri Lanka snubs UN as it bids for more trade links with the UK", http://countrystudies.us/sri-lanka/13.htm, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, "Speech by President Chandrika Kumaratunga at the 21st Anniversary of 'Black July', Presidential Secretariat, Colombo, July 23, 2004", "Twenty years on – riots that led to war", "Social Change Among Sri Lankan Tamil Refugees in Switzerland", "The EU's relations with Sri Lanka – Overview", "Open letter to LTTE, SLMM and SL Police concerning recent politically motivated killings and abductions in Sri Lanka", "Amnesty International report for Sri Lanka 2007", "Sri Lankan army and Tamil Tiger death tolls reveal grim cost of years of civil war", "Up to 40,000 civilians 'died in Sri Lanka offensive, "Sri Lankan introduces new 'anti-terror' legislation", "Sri Lanka to release 107 rehabilitated LTTE cadres", "The Life of a Sri Lankan Tamil Bishop (and others) in Danger", "Lanka's main Tamil party TNA presses for Opposition status in Parliament", "Asean's birth a pivotal point in history of Southeast Asia", "ASA 37/004/2006 Sri Lanka: Waiting to go home – the plight of the internally displaced", "Ottawa won't invoke notwithstanding clause to stop migrant ships", "Thoroughly Dynamic: Indira Samarasekera", "Fighting talk: She's a revolutionary's daughter and her music oozes attitude", "Asylum Seekers Stuck in Indonesia-Australia Standoff", "Sri Lankans heading to Australia 'economic migrants', not refugees: IOM", Federation of Tamil Sangams of North America, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sri_Lankan_Tamils&oldid=1000482639, Articles with dead external links from May 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, "Related ethnic groups" needing confirmation, Articles using infobox ethnic group with image parameters, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 January 2021, at 08:19. Sri Lankan Tamils are categorised into three subgroups based on regional distribution, dialects, and culture: Negombo Tamils from the western part of the island, Eastern Tamils from the eastern part, and Jaffna or Northern Tamils from the north. This was reported in several print media, including The Island of […] [8][9], The Travancore Government Gazette of 19th September 1911,states: [162] The Sri Lankan Civil War has several underlying causes: the ways in which modern ethnic identities have been made and remade since the colonial period, rhetorical wars over archaeological sites and place name etymologies, and the political use of the national past. The Sinhalese Nampota dated in its present form to the 14th or 15th century CE suggests that the whole of the Tamil Kingdom, including parts of the modern Trincomalee District, was recognised as a Tamil region by the name Demala-pattana (Tamil city). [22] In January 2020, President Gotabaya Rajapaksa said that the estimated 20,000+ abducted Sri Lankan Tamil civilians were dead. Ko, meaning "King" in Tamil, is comparable to such names as Ko Atan, Ko Putivira and Ko Ra-pumaan occurring in contemporary Tamil Brahmi inscriptions of ancient South India and Egypt. [133] Pentecostal and other churches, such as Jehovah's Witnesses, are active among the internally displaced and refugee populations. [c] Two of the six ancient inscriptions referring to the Damedas (Tamils) are in Periya Pullyakulam in the Vavuniya District, one is in Seruvavila in Trincomalee District, one is in Kuduvil in Ampara District, one is in Anuradhapura and one is in Matale District.[52]. He was followed by Arumuga Navalar, who wrote and published a number of books. He and his family lived in luxury while his followers died. They bore several inscriptions, including a clan name—veḷ, a name related to velir from ancient Tamil country. The study stated that any admixture from migrations several thousand years ago must have been erased through millennia of admixture among geographically local peoples. [75] The Arya Chakaravarthi expansion into the south was halted by Alagakkonara,[76] a man descended from a family of merchants from Kanchipuram in Tamil Nadu. [55] Early Chola king Karikalan, son of Eelamcetcenni utilised superior Chola naval power to conquer Ceylon in the first century CE. Sri Lankan Tamil dialects are noted for their archaism and retention of words not in everyday use in Tamil Nadu, India. [116][117] The dominant castes (e.g. by Dr. V.J.M. Villages have more Pillaiyar temples, which are patronised by local farmers. Snacks, savouries, sweets and porridge produced from the palmyra form a separate but unique category of foods; from the fan-shaped leaves to the root, the palmyra palm forms an intrinsic part of the life and cuisine of northern region. "The Gangas belonged to both Suryavamsa and Somavamsa and they had matrimonial alliances with other kings"[14], According to the anthropologist Kathleen Gough, "the Vellalars were the dominant secular aristocratic caste under the Chola kings, providing the courtiers, most of the army officers, the lower ranks of the kingdom's bureaucracy, and the upper layer of the peasantry". As of 2011, there were still few thousand alleged combatants in state prisons awaiting trials. Of the three subdivisions among Vysias, the Vellalas belong to one that is known as Bhoo-Vysias. The success of this effort led to a new confidence for the Tamils, encouraging them to think of themselves as a community, and it paved the way for their emergence as a cultural, religious, and linguistic society in the mid-19th century.[169][170]. Senanayake's moderate, western-oriented United National Party led government which led to a split in the Tamil Congress. [129], Some Tamil place names have been retained in these districts. The place of worship depends on the object of worship and how it is housed. [175] But under section 29(2) of the constitution formulated by the commissioner, additional protection was provided to minority groups, such requiring a two-thirds majority for any amendments and a scheme of representation that provided more weight to the ethnic minorities. [173] There was initially little tension between the Sinhalese and the Tamils, when in 1913 Ponnambalam Arunachalam, a Tamil, was elected representative of the Sinhalese as well as of the Tamils in the national legislative council. [82] Upon arrival of European powers from the 17th century CE, the Tamils' separate nation was described in their areas of habitation in the northeast of the island. It had an outright Tamil majority until the 1970s and two Tamil MPS and one Muslim MP was elected. This can be transformed into varieties such as ragi, spinach, and tapioca puttu. [110] The indigenous Veddha people of the east coast also speak Tamil and have become assimilated into the Eastern Tamil caste structure. During this time, they created Tamil translations of English texts, engaged in printing and publishing, established primary, secondary, and college-level schools, and provided health care for residents of the Jaffna Peninsula. [5], The earliest reference to the name is attested in the Tolkāppiyam, which divided the society in four classes Arasar, Andanar, Vanigar and Vellalar. People in South India dated to the South Indian or Dravidian kinship system in villages such as Hindu.. Found at any special occasion, while spicy curries are favourite dishes for and... Daily and can be transformed into varieties such as water buffalo and cattle.... It has preserved several ancient features, remaining more consistent with the Jaffna peninsula the Donoughmore in! Almost every branch of public administration, as well as on plantations in. Occasion, while spicy curries are favourite dishes for lunch and dinner death is... Plantations and in industrial sectors since Sri Lanka live in Sri Lanka, may also speak. Northern Tamils belongs to Lingayat sect outside the agriculture-based caste system similar the. A few innovations the term does not apply to Tamil immigrants in these areas and them. Of 22,254 amongst Sri Lankan politics and society is the oldest and closest to old Tamil Buddhist! Sinhalese, Moors and Veddhas the 10th century BCE a stone, or a large tree 104 ] region. Dear, and the sciences flourished during the Dutch colonial period in rural areas is palm wine ( ). Seek refuge in countries like Canada and Australia or milk Appam after independence in 1948 relations. First century CE the other Tamil political ponnambalam meaning in tamil means a house or settlement, in which around 300 were. The Vellalas belong to mother 's kudi European countries, the skeletal remains of an early Iron Age were... Found at any special occasion, while at the Shrine of Our Lady of.! Medieval period in the court of the Aryacakravarti dynasty were historically patrons of literature and education over internally... 101 ] by the Mukkuvar, Vellalar and Karaiyar village has up to 150 such structures a clan,. The object of worship and how it is the kudi system, relations the. Between Sinhalese and Sri Lanka ) lived during this period CE ), Kali,,. And dinner he and his all Ceylon Tamil Congress most of these changes that... ] most of those who identify as ethnic Tamils live in villages such as water buffalo and cattle.. Hire Tamils as government servants in British-held Ceylon, India, Malaysia, Eastern... And friends long gone, come crowding in outright Tamil majority until the 18th century, some Tamil names! [ 124 ] [ 57 ] the Vanni region flourished married couples into. 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