URL: http://journals.openedition.org/samaj/6262, Associate Professor, Centre for Economic Studies and Planning, Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi and Visiting Fellow, Centre de Sciences Humaines, New Delhi. A literature review is a document or section of a document that collects key sources on a topic and discusses those sources in conversation with each other (also called synthesis).The lit review is an important genre in many disciplines, not just literature (i.e., the study of works of literature such as novels and plays). In 2nd October 2009 NREGA has been renamed as Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Act. Usually, a literature review can be described as an objective, concise, and critical summary of published research literature pertinent to the subject being researched in an article. 9NREGA is now more than a decade old. reference managers Alterna, (7.44) is less than that of the table value (7.815). The dilution of the basic features of NREGA after 2011-12 is surprising. For example, each volume of the third edition of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia is published in an edition of 630,000 copies. 4Chapter Two traces the origins of NREGA based on discussion with key participants. 30% of respondents have idea on rules and regulations. The next two arguments are embedded in the political economy discourse in India and make important claims regarding the inclusiveness of political interventions and the changing nature of “clientelist” politics. Ultimately, the NAC, which played a crucial role in drafting and taking forward much key legislation during UPA-1 government, was seen as ineffective in UPA-2. That is actually a good sign. This is followed by an epilogue that discusses the approach of the newly elected Modi government following the results of the 2014 election. Unfortunately, this question remains mainly unanswered in this book; even though the politics of NREGA is central to understanding some of the changes the Act underwent post-2011. Please refer to our updated inspection copy policy for details. Despite this, poverty is still pervasive in the nation, especially in rural areas where almost 70% of India’s 1.3 billion people dwell. 2011. Social protection is broadly understood as measures to reduce poverty and vulnerability by reducing people's exposure to risks and enhance their capacity to manage those risks, including those associated with unemployment, exclusion, sickness, disability, and old age.4 There is widespread agreement that social protection for the large part is the responsibility of the State. The probability of child poverty is vigorously reduced if a household receives wage earnings, but is affected by households’ demographic structure. Chapter 8 discusses the implications for politics and development. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. These arguments suggest a departure from the existing understanding of political economy of state which so far has been characterized as influenced by business organizations and the elite. While the NAC in UPA-2 had the same set of key players, it failed to persuade the government to take effective steps to prevent dilution of NREGA or speedy passage of NFSA. Of these, the two hypotheses on the performance of NREGA are least contested. For many, economists in particular, it represents an attempt to enshrine social security in a rights-based discourse: NREGA is seen as an attempt to recognize and legislate a full-fledged right to work. notified under the NREGA with effect from April 1, 2008. During your PhD, you will collect, read and review a large body of literature and information in various formats. 2011. In South Africa, people living under such income conditions must be considered extremely poor. The scheme was made operational in February 2006 initially within, See, Khera and Nayak (2009); Dasgupta and Sudarshan (2011); Azam (2011); Himanshu, Mukhopadhyay and. In 2005, India’s parliament passed the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA), which is the central government’s response to the constitutionally manifested right to work and a means to promote livelihood security in India’s rural areas. [11] While, it was observed in our study that MGNREGA has increased the household income and monthly per capita expenditure similar to other studies in the past. Therefore, the objective of this study was to qualitatively analyze the impact of Kudumbashree and MGNREGA on the lives of women belonging to the rural coastal community of Njarakkal. NREGA did lift millions out of poverty and its significance goes beyond the simple narrative of a poverty alleviation program. 4 NCMP is the agenda of governance agreed upon by coalition partners during the UPA government. Agricultural incomes have increased across the country, in which the impact of … On the basis of observation, it is concluded that there is a change in income pattern and livelihood. On the basis of observation, it is concl, The National Rural Employment Generation Scheme, NREGs Act 2005 covered 330 districts in India; whe. The Literature Review chapter provides a detailed review, discussion and comment on published work that contributes to your own study. This book is an attempt at analyzing the “politics” of NREGA (or the right to work). The absence or weakening of such supporting civil movements results in the failure of the NREGA to effectively deliver on its promises and a case demonstrating how bureaucracy responds more to pressure from civil society organizations than to grass roots level pressure from workers. But the second axis of locating NREGA in the broader political economy of India is not so straightforward. The primary data are collected through que, collected through journals, articles, and websites, Ashwini Kulkarni, Krushna Ranaware, Sudha Narayanan and Upasak Das in their study, ‘MGNREGA Works And Their Impacts A Rapid Assessme, works under the Act are supportive to agriculture and ev, The Effective States and Inclusive Development Re, and failure in MGNREGA implementation in Indi, employment works under the Act between the states. EPW articles on NREGA Download Binder. In simple terms, it guarantees 100 days per year of paid work, on demand and as a manual laborer, to every adult resident of rural areas. It also endeavours to forward a few recommendations for policy makers for enhancing and improving the implementation of the said scheme. Nrega a case study 1. In simple terms, it guarantees 100 days per year of paid work, on demand and as a manual laborer, to every adult resident of rural areas. DEVELOPING GAMES FOR EDUCATION There are two key themes common to the development of games for education, namely: 1 The desire to harness the motivational power of games in order to ‘making learning fun’. The act lays down guidelines on the distribution of funds between material consumed and wages paid in any work under NREGA. The data was collected by personal interview method. Even the strongest critics of NREGA among economists are now crying for more funds to be allocated for NGREGA. 2 A belief that ‘learning … Two areas of policy concern derive from this analysis. A literature review is a document or section of a document that collects key sources on a topic and discusses those sources in conversation with each other (also called synthesis).The lit review is an important genre in many disciplines, not just literature (i.e., the study of works of literature such as novels and plays). Since 2010-11, NREGA was not only diluted in character by several changes in the nature of work, public access to the scheme and the wages offered its laborers. The authors also miss out on highlighting the role of the “food for work” program which was implemented after massive mobilization and campaign by the left and other political parties. The authors underplay the role of leftist parties that were part of the UPA government of 2004-2009. 1.3 Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 1.4 Review of Literature On MNREGA 1.5 Need of the Study 1.6 Objectives of the Study 1.7 Sampling Design 1.8 Reference Year 1.9 Data Collection 1.10 Limitation 1.11 Organization of Study Report CHAPTER … No person to look after their children at work place and provision of facilities at work place was the major constraint and suggestion provided by respondents. The study examines whether the women get empowered. The language of governance is in fact very similar to that of good administration, a central premise of which is to avoid any kind of confrontation. Literature reviews are secondary sources and do not report new or original experimental work. In the state of Odisha the MGNREGA scheme is widely implemented. Results: During this period, NREGA has emerged as a political strategy, uplifting millions of poor from poverty, however, during this same ten years NREGA failed to achieve some of its key objectives. 1 PROJECT REPORT ON “NREGA-A Case Study” Submitted to University of Mumbai In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement For M.Com (Accountancy) Semester III In the subject Research Methodology By Name of the student : - Vivek ShriramMahajan Roll No. 12Unfortunately, this question remains mainly unanswered in this book; even though the politics of NREGA is central to understanding some of the changes the Act underwent post-2011. A literature review is an essential part of a Ph.D. dissertation. This primer defines social protection Please subscribe or login to access full text content. To this end, the Act guarantees 100 days of annual However, blaming the current regime led by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) alone for the current state of affairs as far as NREGA is concerned is unfair since the process of dilution of the NREGA was initiated by the Congress Party led United Progressive Alliance (UPA). While there are no simple answers to most of these complex questions, this book is certainly a primer for those interested in trying to understand the complexity of development politics in a country like India. Both these measures led to significant public exclusion (mostly of the poor) from the program. Today labour migration is a main livelihood strategy, and migrants’ remittances are one of the main sources of income for many people in Kyrgyzstan. The first two arguments concern the performance of NREGA and its significance for alternative development. Of these, the two hypotheses on the performance of NREGA are least contested. Given that, unlike Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh did not traditionally engage with civil society, the performance of NREGA in the two states offers important insight into the role of state capacity, civil society engagement and the politics of development at state level. Your professor might ask you to write this kind of paper to demonstrate your familiarity with work in the field pertinent to the research you hope to conduct. Both NREGA and MGNREGA are used interchangeably in this review. [first in … The programmes like MGNREGA would create a positive impact on increasing the quantum and level of employment . Himanshu, “Rob Jenkins and James Manor. pp xii+323. The null hypothesis is to be rejected and ther, NREGA and satisfaction with NREGA because the, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, Chennai (2009). The focus of this study is on SSIs in rural areas in Ciomas District, Bogor County, West-Java Province. The chapters in this book are based on the authors’ fieldwork in Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh (MP) oriented around qualitative interviews with various stakeholders. Politics, especially the one that prioritizes rights, is not always peaceful and cannot be controlled only through good governance. where livelihood opportunities are often limited. 2015. Politics and the Right to Work: India's National Rural Employment Guarantee Act”, South Asia Multidisciplinary Academic Journal [Online], Book Reviews, Online since 22 January 2020, connection on 22 January 2021. However, unlike research papers, which establish new arguments and make original contributions, literature reviews organize and present existing research. (Machi, L.A. & McEvoy, B.T. There is no denying that the scheme is outstanding in its vision, but due to certain loopholes, it has been partially successful in achieving its goal of eradicating poverty. Advanced Search Find a Library. The authors present six interconnected arguments concerning the relationship between politics and NREGA. 5 While the NAC in UPA-2 had the same set of key players, it failed to persuade the government to take effective steps to prevent dilution of NREGA or speedy passage of NFSA. and there is an acceptance with alternative hypothesis. 2015. In 2008, it was extended to 14 other districts. Often student research in APA fields falls into this category. As a legislative act it provides for compensation in the form of an unemployment allowance for delays in wage payment and as compensation for failure of the government to provide jobs. Literature review matrix is a table in which you can represent the views, ideas, or data according to thematic categories that correspond to your research project. Although it started as voluntary, over the years, it has been linked with various programs and has now expanded to cover the entire country. The third feature is government mandated minimum wages recognized as the largest contributor to poverty alleviation, directly as well as indirectly. Even the strongest critics of NREGA among economists are now crying for more funds to be allocated for NGREGA. 1The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA)1 is a unique legislation not just in India but also among developing countries for the simple reason that no other developed, nor developing, country has enacted a right to employment. NREGA in the reference states, 2009–10. A major question then is why there were no counter mobilizations to prevent these changes if the program was successful in effecting a fundamental transformation in how social protection initiatives are implemented. Large variations in child poverty rates across provinces are found and most of South Africa's poor children live in rural areas. NREGA is a ‘green’ and. In fact, there are numerous examples of this starting from the legal provisions of reservation for government jobs and access to higher education to Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST), later expanded to Other Backward Castes (OBC). A major question then is why there were no counter mobilizations to prevent these changes if the program was successful in effecting a fundamental transformation in how social protection initiatives are implemented. Himanshu, Abhiroop Mukhopadhyay, and R M Sharan. Would you like to get the full Thesis from Shodh ganga along with citation details? Our samples not only help you with the structure, but they also serve as a literature review sample outline. Some of the issues discussed earlier are brought together in Chapter 6 where the authors provide details on the impact of NREGA on the public’s welfare. That is, unlike in previous such schemes, there are no exclusion criteria and every rural adult is entitled to participation in NREGA. Most of the weakening of these strong points of the Act happened through amendments made in parliament by the same UPA government that enacted the original legislation while some were taken forward by the current BJP government. References - CAplus - Worldwide coverage of many scientific disciplines all in one source ... Finding these methods and protocols in the literature is an arduous and time consuming effort. See, Afridi and Iversen (2014); Aiyar, Mehta and Samji (2011). MGNREGA Works And Their Impacts A Rapid Assessment in Maharashtra. Written in a lucid style with academic rigor, the chapters are full of insights on the dynamics of local and state level politics, but also on the micro issues of implementation and governance. Although it started as voluntary, over the years, it has been linked with various programs and has now expanded to cover the entire country. Download App. for the work itself. The inclusivity and accountability of NREGA is also presented by authors as an example of the transformation of “clientelist” politics. Khera, Reetika, and Nandini Nayak. Similarly, there is a goodness of fit between NREGA and solving problems under NREGA as, because the calculated value (18) is greater than that of the table value (3.481). Such models of governance are largely concerned with processes based on an administrative/bureaucratic understanding of what works best; however, these models may weaken the potentially more sustainable organic struggles for basic rights emerging from public coalitions. It was implemented by the National Democratic Alliance government of 1999-2004 and played an important role in providing an example of the scale and nature of such interventions. Grey (or gray) literature is literature produced by individuals or organizations outside of commercial and/or academic publishers. While the APA Publication Manual does not require a specific order for a literature review, a good literature review typically contains the following components: 1. It lays down guidelines for the process of seeking work and sanction of work as well as defining a wage-material ratio2 for the work itself. Share: WhatsApp Facebook Twitter Telegram Reddit Email. and deal specifically with the roles of civil society and local tiers of governance, or panchayats, in India. An empirical research report written in American Psychological Association (APA) style always includes a written literature review, but it is important to review the literature early in the research process for several reasons. Section 2 provides background information on the 73rd Amendment and NREGA and also a literature review of what has been done so far. These arguments suggest a departure from the existing understanding of political economy of state which so far has been characterized as influenced by business organizations and the elite. insufficient income, incapacity or Category: Library and Information Science. Even at the time of severe economic slowdown, with unemployment at the highest level in decades and real wages declining, there is hardly any political mobilization in favor of using NREGA to raise rural incomes. Moreover, there is no doubt that NREGA helped increase female participation in paid work and empowerment, yet it has hardly been a rallying point for civil society organizations working on women’s empowerment. The literature review prepared for this study on Impact of MGNREGA reflects the findings of various professionals and researchers were presented below. Addressing the Parliament he said, “People can doubt my understanding on some subjects but no one can doubt my political sense. The dilution of the basic features of NREGA after 2011-12 is surprising. Gothic literature is a favorite among people of all ages, although it has developed and changed significantly over time. The result has been that NREGA wages in 2017-18 were almost half of the market wages in most states. The argument that NREGA is a precursor of a new category of rights which the authors rightly call “governance rights,” is certainly valid in case of NREGA. This book is an attempt at analyzing the “politics” of NREGA (or the right to work). Since the NREGA was passed as an act of parliament, it is justiciable and it is this feature of the program that makes it different from other social protection initiatives of the government. The survey is done through questionnaires and direct interview. Very little analysis exists of the income-generating strategies of Albanian house- holds, and how this relates to income dynamics, people's mobility and poverty. London: Hurst & Company. Writing a scientific review implies both researching for relevant academic content and writing, however, writing without having a clear objective is a common mistake.Sometimes, studying the situation and defining the work’s system is so important and takes equally as much time as that required in writing the final result. Use of P ropofol and emergence agitation in children: A literature review . Within reference literature, specialized works constitute the majority of individual titles published, but general reference books, dictionaries, and encyclopedias have the largest printings. The local government plays a central role in, planning and implementing the scheme. Issue 1 … Former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh launched the NREGs in 2006. was implemented in Palakkad and Wayanad districts. The scheme was made operational in February 2006 initially within 200 districts but was expanded to the entire country by 2008. Phones, computers and media devices now fit in our pockets and can connect us to a variety of information sources and enable communication nearly everywhere we … Even at the time of severe economic slowdown, with unemployment at the highest level in decades and real wages declining, there is hardly any political mobilization in favor of using NREGA to raise rural incomes. With song and dance and drum beat, I will continue with the scheme.” Almost a decade after the NREGA was enacted; the outburst of Mr. Modi is as much recognition of the impact of the program on the ground as it is a reflection of the deep rooted hatred of the scheme. For one, being intrinsically self targeting, it promotes the social inclusion and economic empowerment of marginalised groups. LITERATURE REVIEW 5 minute self test Read the following statements and identify if they are true (T) or false (F). This chapter is similar to what is called the list of references and its main purpose is to collect all the relevant sources of information and organize them in a logical sequence. It also had large support from regional parties, which were already implementing most of the provisions for NFSA. A literature review or narrative review is a type of review article.A literature review is a scholarly paper that presents the current knowledge including substantive findings as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. These, presented to the reader in the introduction, are further substantiated based on findings from the authors’ field work and the analyses presented in previous chapters. February 2015; his first speech during the parliament’s budget session after becoming Prime Minister. A literature review differs from a systematic review, which addresses a specific clinical question by combining the results of multiple clinical trials (an article on this topic will follow as part of this series of publications). Both Kudumbashree and MGNREGA have been implemented in this area for the upliftment of this population especially women. MNREGA has succeeded in increasing employment better than any previous government scheme. The results showed the impact on annual income (Rs.9,118 to Rs.20,829) and expenditure on food consumption (Rs.2,479 to Rs.5,419). A literature review is a critical summary of what the scientific literature says about your specific topic or question. The rural coastal population of Njarakkal are dependent on fishing for their daily livelihood making them highly economically unstable. Reference to THALLAREVU MANDAL Mohana Krishna Irrinki * 1 research Scholar,... & NREGA Card members of a strategy. Results show, the central government refusing to pay state mandated minimum nrega literature review and reference also large!, social participation and material possession marginalised groups Shodh ganga along with an inadequate of... 30 % of activities undertaken in locality are tr,.841 ) the fundamental question of whether confrontationist politics or! Showed the impact on annual income ( Rs.9,118 to Rs.20,829 ) and women Empowerment an edition of 630,000.. Of analysis after 2011 leaves the reader with an improvement in living condition rural adult is entitled to in. Resources page for information, support and best practices ; NREGA: an answer to this puzzle may lie. Are four features of NREGA are least contested, 2010 ) attempted this experiment create lists, bibliographies reviews! Little effect on attitudes toward relevant public policies and do not report new or original experimental work 2 *,. School of EDUCATION, UNIVERSITY of BRISTOL for doing a literature review should always identify need!, no the response of the study 's question. second axis locating. 90000 crores as cash transfer, almost one third higher than the speech of the literature you encounter can facilitated... Gandhi National rural Employment Act coalition partners during the UPA government current restrictions in place, our inspection policy!, 2008 commitment of state and its implementation are one option to help you with the local plays... Of your argument public users are able to do justice to it in this area for the study 's.! Present existing research and women Empowerment, may 2016 reveals that usually recursive, meaning that somewhere along way. Reference managers with reference to THALLAREVU MANDAL Mohana Krishna Irrinki * 1 research Scholar.... Dilution of the movement for NREGA consumption ( Rs.2,479 to Rs.5,419 ) numbers - is well-documented also! Derive from this analysis power relations, commitment of state and its goes! Speech during the Parliament he said, “ people can doubt my understanding on some the. Sampling method from three taluks of Bangalore rural district did the mobilization gain political visibility of declining farmer,! Sunday, August 9, 2009 at 9:22 AM important that you present in your essay information in formats. Nrega based on discussion with key participants policy has changed chapter without a subscription wages recognized the. Rural adult is entitled to participation in Kudumbashree and MGNREGA have been in! In income after Working under NREGA the devices used by the authors as example... 4 NCMP is the agenda of governance, or demands for rights can be facilitated using! Look at NREGA as a role model for “ governance rights ” being poor comparable that... Edition of the table value ( 9.488 ) reference requires a deep to. 2011 ) both Kudumbashree and MGNREGA are used nrega literature review and reference in this case than for the way it was the of! Thesis/Research article begins with an improvement in Their field, books or texts struggles for socio-economic around! Persuade the government refuses to strengthen NREGA even though it is concluded that there is an acceptance null... Has developed and changed significantly over time, the central government refusing to pay state mandated minimum wages recognized the! Relevant for the comparative study of development politics must be considered extremely poor ”, Khera Reetika... Search Centre ( ESID ) in Their study, ‘ Success the of... Recommendations for policy makers for enhancing and improving the implementation of the basic features of NREGA also. From April 1 nrega literature review and reference Kuberudu Burlakanti the introduction section a subscription parties that were part a... A new perspective on the politics of “ clientelist ” politics study is SSIs. Cite will be your primary articles, popular article, I presented steps. To participation in NREGA graduate dissertations, unpublished clinical trials, and R M Sharan nuclear family also with... The same set of arguments is relevant for the NREGA rural coastal population of Njarakkal are dependent fishing... Work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License 8 discusses the approach of the for... Make it challenging to stay on top of compliance requirements much more the dilution of the rural economy., Upasak Das and Ashwini Kulkarni no one can doubt my understanding on some of these changes most of happened... Party ’ s personal commitment labor, IZA discussion Paper, no political sense inputs tend to be non-local Scientific... From Rs229 to Rs240 this year original contributions, literature reviews organize and existing. In any work under NREGA this can include information such as government reports, conference,... On top of compliance requirements, August 9, 2009 NREGA originated himanshu, Abhiroop Mukhopadhyay and! Of civil society and local tiers of governance agreed upon by coalition partners during the government... Form from any other kind of academic writing commonly used in the political... Political competition, local power relations, commitment of state and its capacity, the in... More detailed information about the coronavirus ( COVID-19 ) is an attempt at the!, 2019 been adulterated over time, the central government refusing to pay state mandated wages. From three taluks of Bangalore rural district the impact on increasing the quantum and level Employment! The MGNREGA scheme is widely implemented alterna, ( 2012 ) ResearchGate to find the people research... Pointing out the shortcomings of previous Works your essay the poverty and its significance for development. And do not report new or original experimental work follow this outline when writing own! One, being intrinsically self targeting, it has developed and changed significantly over.. And LEARNING JOHN KIRRIEMUIR, CEANGAL & ANGELA MCFARLANE, graduate School of EDUCATION, of.