Forces of allied states, as well as units made up of non-Germans, were also assigned to German units. It had sufficient offensive and defensive firepower and support elements to maintain a combat situation. THE GERMAN WORLD WAR II ORGANIZATIONAL SERIES 1/I 01.09.39 Mechanized Army Formations and Waffen-SS Formations (3rd Revised Edition) 1/II-1 01.09.39 1 st and 2 nd Welle Army Infantry Divisions 1/II-2 01.09.39 3 rd and 4 th Welle Army Infantry Divisions 1/III 01.09.39 Higher Headquarters — Mechanized GHQ Units — Static Units (2nd Revised Edition) Until May 1940 the Wehrmacht had the following divisions: 129 infantry divisions, 4 motorized infantry divisions, 4 light motorized infantry divisions, 10 tank divisions, 3 mounta… However, their motorized and tank formations accounted for only 20% of the Heer's capacity at their peak strength. Gebirgs-Division 2. ": This page was last edited on 30 December 2020, at 23:55. 8. Another substantial loss was incurred during the defeat of the German 6th Army at Stalingrad in the winter of 1942–1943. The term Abwehr (German for "defense", here referring to counter-intelligence) had been created just after World War I as an ostensible concession to Allied demands that Germany's intelligence activities be for defensive purposes only. It consisted of the Heer (army), the Kriegsmarine (navy) and the Luftwaffe (air force). ):42 Officers, 931 other ranks 1.4. Good combat performance was rewarded. Panzerdivision). War and peace and war: The rise and fall of empires. 99. Signal Company:7 Officers, 302 other ranks 1.3. 1. From June 1941 to the end of February 1942 German forces in the Soviet Union lost some 75,000 trucks to mechanical wear and tear and combat damage – approximately half the number they had at the beginning of the campaign. The Abwehr was the army intelligence organization from 1921 to 1944. I should also point out that each division might have a different report date for each month and this will mean that a division located on the Eastern front at the beginning of the month might not be located on that front at the end of the month. ... Panzer Divisions WW2 German Tanks Insignia Gift T-Shirt. In the 19 volumes that comprise this work each division has listed a monthly assignment showing higher attachments during the war. A panzer division is one of the armored (tank) divisions in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II. 32 watching. From 1943, the lack of available replacements for the Wehrmacht began to become apparent, reducing the division’s TOE strength and introducing a new organization. Some infantry formations followed in the path of the mobile formations, mopping-up, widening the corridor manufactured by the breakthrough attack and solidifying the ring surrounding the enemy formations left behind, and then gradually destroying them in concentric attacks. Note: The information shown in the above chart was gratefully supplied through research done by Ron Klages. This division consisted of three infantry regiments (about 2,000 men each), o… FREE Shipping on orders over $25 shipped by Amazon. In offensive operations the infantry formations were used to attack more or less simultaneously across a large portion of the front so as to pin the enemy forces ahead of them and draw attention to themselves, while the mobile formations were concentrated to attack only narrow sectors of the front, breaking through to the enemy rear and surrounding him. Panzer divisions formed the decisive striking force of the German army in the campaigns against Poland in 1939, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France in 1940, and the Balkans and the Soviet Union in 1941. Most of these were lost during the retreat in the face of the Soviet counteroffensive from December 1941 to February 1942. For Operation Barbarossa in 1941, the Army forces were assigned to three strategic campaign groupings: Below the army group level forces included field armies – panzer groups, which later became army level formations themselves, corps, and divisions. [citation needed] The army's lack of trucks (and of petroleum to run them) severely limited infantry movement, especially during and after the Normandy invasion when Allied air-power devastated the French rail network north of the Loire. These losses in men and materiel led to motorized troops making up no more than 10% of total Heer forces at some points of the war. In 1944 Rommel argued that in the face of overwhelming Anglo-American air power, the tactic of employing the concentrated "fast formations" was no longer possible because they could no longer move quickly enough to reach the threatened locations because of the expected interdiction of all routes by Allied fighter-bombers. —Alexander Pope (1688–1744) 'Army') was the land forces component of the Wehrmacht,[a] the regular German Armed Forces, from 1935 until it ceased to exist in 1945 and then formally dissolved in August 1946. Gebirgs-Division The Wehrmacht (German pronunciation: [ˈveːɐ̯maxt] , lit. WW2 German U-boat T-shirt - Kriegsmarine. Once an operation began, whether offensive or defensive, speed in response to changing circumstances was considered more important than careful planning and coordination of new plans. WW2 German 36th grenadier division military watch, size without crown 32 mm. For smaller units, see List of German corps in World War II and List of German divisions in World War II. The Shock Army originated in 1942 and at first it was a temporary grouping. Military Police Platoon:3 Officers, 88 other ranks 1. In public opinion, the German military was and is sometimes seen as a high-tech army, since new technologies that were introduced before and during World War II influenced its development of tactical doctrine. During the autumn of 1937, two more corps were formed. History. A Division would contain from 1 to 4 regiments with 10,000 to 20,000 men. 7th Mountain Division(previously 99th Light Infantry Division) 8. 2nd Mountain Division 3. Known as the Infantry Division 1944, this new formation had a strength of 12,772 men as opposed to the 17,734 soldiers of a division in 1939, although its firepower had actually increased. In defensive operations the infantry formations were deployed across the front to hold the main defence line and the mobile formations were concentrated in a small number of locations from where they launched focused counterattacks against enemy forces who had broken through the infantry defence belt. Thus the Army was intermediate in size between the Western corps and army. He therefore suggested scattering these units across the front just behind the infantry. Officers and NCOs were selected based on character and trained towards decisive combat leadership. German Division Count by Type (1939-1945) by Ron Klages & John Mulholland The following accounting of German divisions by type from September 1939 to May 1945 was compiled from the works of Georg Tessin in his epic accounting of the Wehrmacht and Waffen SS titled: Verbände und Truppen der deutschen Wehrmacht und Waffen-SS 1939-1945 . 6. For example, lacking sufficient motor vehicles to equip more than a small portion of their army, the Germans chose to concentrate the available vehicles in a small number of divisions which were to be fully motorized. "The Role of the German Army during the Holocaust: A Brief Summary. 6th Mountain Division 7. 4. The List of World War II military units of Germany contains all military units to serve with the armed forces of Germany during World War II. The German Army (German: Heer, German: [heːɐ̯] (listen), lit. In German-speaking countries, Panzerdivision is not immediately associated with the Wehrmacht as it is in English, as the German term simply means "armored division" and has no additional connotation. However, the production of new motor vehicles by Germany, even with the exploitation of the industries of occupied countries, could not keep up with the heavy loss of motor vehicles during the winter of 1941–1942. Germany had ten panzer divisions in Normandy, including five from the Waffen SS. [14][15][16], Max Visser argues that the German army focused on achieving high combat performance rather than high organisational efficiency (like the US army). The German Army was promoted by Nazi propaganda. This is a more restricted meaning than the German-language equivalent Panzerdivision (short: PzDiv), still used in the modern German Army of the Bundeswehr (for example the 1. 157, 15… by Ron Klages & John MulhollandThe following accounting of German divisions by month from September 1939 to May 1945 by front was compiled from the works of Georg Tessin in his epic accounting of the Wehrmacht and Waffen SS titled: Verbände und Truppen der deutschen Wehrmacht und Waffen-SS 1939-1945. In September 1939, a British infantry division (organized into 3 brigades with 3 battalions per brigade) numbered about 13,600 officers and men. (Mountain-Divisions) 1. 2. The German operational doctrine emphasized sweeping pincer and lateral movements meant to destroy the enemy forces as quickly as possible. In the campaign against France, there were 10 panzer divisions incorporating … The German Army was mainly structured in Army groups (Heeresgruppen) consisting of several armies that were relocated, restructured or renamed in the course of the war. Visser argues this allowed the German army to achieve superior combat performance compared to a more traditional organisational doctrine like the American one; while this would be ultimately offset by the Allies' superior numerical and material advantage, Visser argues that this allowed the German army to resist far longer than if it had not adopted this method of organisation and doctrine. By 1941, the Soviet Union had roughly 4.8 million troops comprised of 170 divisions. The method OKW adopted was to separate the Field Army (OKH) from the Home Command (Heimatkriegsgebiet) and to entrust the responsibilities of training, conscription, supply, and equipment to Home Command. Now Hitler could ignore the few remaining voices in the Wehrmacht that advised caution, and the German forces were transferred to the West for the invasion of France and the Low countries. The military strength of the German Army was managed through mission-based tactics (Auftragstaktik) (rather than detailed order-based tactics), and an almost proverbial discipline. Germany used a system of military districts (German: Wehrkreis) in order to relieve field commanders of as much administrative work as possible and to provide a regular flow of trained recruits and supplies to the field forces. 1.1.1… 5. Company Headquarters:27 Officers, 194 other ranks 1.2. They were named for their commanding officers. The decisive and lightning, but hard-fought victory over Poland with losses of 10,600 killed, 30,000 wounded and 3,400 missing, surprised the world. 4.7 out of 5 stars 9. Panzer Divisions 1935-1939 - Panzer Divisions 1940-1945 Waffen SS Panzer Divisions 1943-1945 Wehrmacht Panzer Division (mid-1942) - Wehrmacht Panzer Division (1944) Waffen SS Panzer Division (1944) Unit Strength in 1939/40 - Numbering System in Panzer Divisions Strength of the most important Division types of the German Field Army in 1939 These technologies were featured by Nazi propaganda, but were often only available in small numbers or late in the war, as overall supplies of raw materials and armaments became low. This meant that by 1942 the OKW was the de facto command of Western Theatre forces while the Army High Command (OKH) was the same on the Eastern Front.[6]. It emphasised adaptability, flexibility, and decentralised decision making. 79. These provisional combat groupings ranged from corps size, such as Army Detachment Kempf, to commands composed of companies or even platoons. Army personnel were made up of volunteers and conscripts. His commanders and peers, who were less experienced in the effect of Allied air power, disagreed vehemently with his suggestion, arguing that this would violate the prime principle of concentration of force. A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 25,000 soldiers.. The German Army fought a war of annihilation on the Eastern Front and was responsible for many war crimes alongside the Waffen and Allgemeine SS. Owing to Allied deception measures, some German armored units failed to engage the Anglo-Americans until after D-Day. How big was the German Army ? [17] Peter Turchin reports a study by American colonel Trevor Dupuy found that German combat efficiency was higher than both the British and American armies - if a combat efficiency of 1 was assigned to the British, then the Americans had a combat efficiency of 1.1 and the Germans of 1.45. The True Size of German Army in WW2. is a non-political German military history research site regarding the details of the German armed forces between 1918 and 1945. At the height of motorization only 20 per cent of all units were fully motorized. $19.79 $ 19. Price and other details may vary based on size and color. However, the average panzer division along the Atlantic Wall possessed merely seventy-five tanks. British infantry divisions in World War II, in contrast to the case in World War I, grew larger rather than smaller as the war went on. 157. World War II German M35 Camo Painted Aged Chickenwire Helmet. The firepower of a German infantry division far exceeded that of a French, British, or Polish division; the standard German division included 442 machine guns, 135 mortars, 72 antitank guns, and 24 howitzers. Penguin, pp.257-258, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Ranks and insignia of the German Army (1935–1945), List of German military equipment of World War II, "Configurations of human resource practices and battlefield performance: A comparison of two armies. [3] During the period of its expansion under Hitler, the German Army continued to develop concepts pioneered during World War I, combining ground and air assets into combined arms forces. Only 17 months after Adolf Hitler announced the German rearmament program in 1935, the army reached its projected goal of 36 divisions. In autumn 1942, at El Alamein, a lack of fuel compelled the German commander, Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, to scatter his armoured units across the front in battalion-sized concentrations to reduce travel distances to each sector rather than hold them concentrated in one location. German Infantry Division was 17,734 men. This list was prepared to provide a quick reference to determine the relative comparisons by front of the numbers of divisions assigned throughout the war. In 1938 four additional corps were formed with the inclusion of the five divisions of the Austrian Army after the Anschluss in March. $6.99. [5] However, as World War II went on, the OKW found itself exercising an increasing amount of direct command authority over military units, particularly in the west. [citation needed] The small German contingent fighting in North Africa was fully motorized (relying on horses in the desert was near to impossible because of the need to carry large quantities of water and fodder), but the much larger force invading the Soviet Union in June 1941 numbered only some 150,000 trucks and some 625,000 horses (water was abundant and for many months of the year horses could forage – thus reducing the burden on the supply chain). 'Army') was the land forces component of the Wehrmacht, the regular German Armed Forces, from 1935 until it ceased to exist in 1945 and then formally dissolved in August 1946. $18.99 shipping. The first three panzer divisions were created in October 1935, and by the outbreak of war in 1939 there were six. Gebirgs-Division 8. $19.99 $ 19. $169.99. ",–1945)&oldid=997320404, Military units and formations established in 1935, Military units and formations disestablished in 1945, Military history of Germany during World War II, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from May 2014, All articles needing additional references, Articles needing additional references from March 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2019, Articles with failed verification from March 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Gebirgs-Division 5. 3rd Mountain Division 4. Any errors or typos are those of this writer - John Mulholland. The True Size of German Army in WW2. 'defence force') was the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. —Emily Dickinson (1830–1886) “ I find myself ... hoping a total end of all the unhappy divisions of mankind by party-spirit, which at best is but the madness of many for the gain of a few. Gebirgs-Division 4. Famous quotes containing the words cavalry and/or divisions: “ To fight aloud is very brave, But gallanter I know, Who charge within the bosom The Cavalry of Woe. 1. A Regiment would contain between 2,000 and 6,000 men. (The WWII Tank Corps, Mechanized Corps and Cavalry Corps were actually division-size units.) Germans expected a few million Soviet troops and a few armored divisions. After 4 February 1938, the name Abwehr was changed to the Overseas Department/Office in Defence of the Armed Forces High Command (Amt Ausland/Abwehr im Oberkommando der Wehrmacht). The battalion size would range from 500 to 1000 men. 1.1. The next echelon of command was the Front, similar to the Western army group. Gebirgs-Division 7. During World War II, a total of about 13.6 million soldiers served in the German Army.Army personnel were made up of volunteers and conscripts. The Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH) was Nazi Germany's Army High Command from 1936 to 1945. This is a private listing and your identity will not be disclosed to … The other divisions continued to rely on horses for towing artillery, other heavy equipment and supply-wagons, and the men marched on foot or rode bicycles. [citation needed], 1935–1945 land warfare branch of the German military, Though "Wehrmacht" is often erroneously used to refer only to the Army, it actually included the, Turchin, P., 2007. 188. Knowing that the fate of his entire nation was at stake, Stalin ordered troops transferred from Siberia to the Eastern front. 5th Mountain Division 6. Watch in nice working condition keep correct time. The motorized formations received much attention in the world press in the opening years of the war, and were cited as the main reason for the success of the German invasions of Poland (September 1939), Norway and Denmark (April 1940), Belgium, France and Netherlands (May 1940), Yugoslavia (April 1941) and the initial stages of Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union (June 1941). It is a myth that the German Army in World War II was a mechanized juggernaut as a whole. Most were experienced in the West and Russia. [20] In 1944 approximately 85 percent was not motorized. 1.1. [7][8] Recent studies of the Battle of France also suggest that the actions of either Rommel or Guderian or both of them (both had contributed to the theoretical development and early practices of what later became Blitzkrieg prior to World War II),[9][10] ignoring orders of superiors who had never foreseen such spectacular successes and thus prepared much more prudent plans, were conflated into a purposeful doctrine and created the first archetype of Blitzkrieg, which then gained a fearsome reputation that dominated the Allied leaders' minds. 1st Mountain Division (later 1st VolksgebirgsDivision) 2. This would mean British forces would need to commit 45% more troops (or arm existing troops more heavily to the same proportion) to have a even chance of winning the battle, while the Americans would need to commit 30% more to have an even chance.[18]. Alongside the 5th Panzer Division the 4th had been formed in Würzburg five days earlier. Although the Civil War armies and the army sent to Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines in 1898 had units called divisions, they were mainly infantry or cavalry and lacked the other organic elements that constitute a modern division. Headquarters Company:14 Officers, 159 other ranks 1.1. American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) divisions consisted of two infantry … Panzer movements also depended on the rail, since driving a tank long distances wore out its tracks. The following accounting of German divisions by month from September 1939 to May 1945 by front was compiled from the works of Georg Tessin in his epic accounting of the Wehrmacht and Waffen SS titled: Verbände und Truppen der deutschen Wehrmacht und Waffen-SS 1939-1945. Blitzkrieg has been considered by many historians as having its roots in precepts developed by Fuller, Liddel-Hart and von Seeckt, and even having ancient prototypes practiced by Alexander, Genghis Khan and Napoleon. [19][failed verification]. This summarized listing was obtained by compiling all of the divisional listing as reported in the Tessin work. I should also note that the column titled ‘Germany’ actually means home and as such this could represent all non-combatant regions of the war such as that area known as the “General Government” or Denmark. Coupled with operational and tactical methods such as encirclements and "battle of annihilation", the German military managed quick victories in the two initial years of World War II, a new style of warfare described as Blitzkrieg (lightning war) for its speed and destructive power.[4]. Patreon: organization and structure of a German infantry division. Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron (Mech. The army used the German term Kampfgruppe, which equates to battle group in English. The German Army (German: Heer, German: (), lit. War Photo of a German Wehrmacht officer Glossy Size WW2 4 x 6 inch N. $6.99. In 1941, between 74 and 80 percent of their forces were not motorized, relying on railroad for rapid movement and on horse-drawn transport cross country. [21] The standard uniform used by the German Army consisted of a Feldgrau (field grey) tunic and trousers, worn with a Stahlhelm. 8th Mountain Division(previously Division Nr. The percentage of motorization decreased thereafter. In theory, the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW) served as the military General Staff for the Reich's armed forces, coordinating the Wehrmacht (Heer, Kriegsmarine, and the Luftwaffe) operations. They numbered more than 28,000 men and were more than twice the size of those of the other Allies or Central Powers. The first real divisions of America’s armed forces were those sent to France in 1917-1918. WWII Photo Female German Girls Athletic Club WW2 B&W World War Two / 2220E. 1. This approach, referred to as Blitzkrieg, was an operational doctrine instrumental in the success of the offensives in Poland and France. In practice, the OKW acted in a subordinate role to Hitler's personal military staff, translating his ideas into military plans and orders, and issuing them to the three services. Major units above corps level are listed here. info)) was the German expeditionary force in Africa during the North African Campaign of World War II.First sent as a holding force to shore up the Italian defense of their African colonies, the formation fought on in Africa, under various appellations, from March 1941 until its surrender in May 1943. Gebirgs-Division 6. One of the most significant problems bedeviling German offensives and initially alarming senior commanders was the gap created between the fast moving "fast formations" and the following infantry, as the infantry were considered a prerequisite for protecting the "fast formations" flanks and rear and enabling supply columns carrying fuel, petrol and ammunition to reach them. [11][12][13] Thus 'Blitzkrieg' was recognised after the fact, and while it became adopted by the Wehrmacht, it never became the official doctrine nor got used to its full potential because only a small part of the Wehrmacht was trained for it and key leaders at the highest levels either focused on only certain aspects or even did not understand it. 4th Mountain Division 5. Free shipping. The answer depends on which kind of Division you're asking about. The infantry remained foot soldiers throughout the war; artillery also remained primarily horse-drawn. [2] During World War II, a total of about 13.6 million soldiers served in the German Army. How big was the German Army ? Finally, divisions established in the latter months of the conflict are only included if Tessin showed a higher assignment existing for the division. $1.75 shipping. The 5th Panzer Division was formed in Oppeln, now Opole in Poland, on 15 November 1938 as part of a second wave of new armoured divisions in Germany following the creation of the original three tank divisions in 1935. Gebirgs-Division 3. 4.8 out of 5 stars 11.